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Mold in Schools

Information on identifying, assessing, and removing mold-contaminated materials from school facilities and preventing mold growth, compiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. 

Excellent resource including tools for building self-evaluation.

Online course from the EPA on Mold

Mold Course

If you are an environmental and/or public health professional, take the Mold Course - Introduction to Mold and Mold Remediation for Environmental and Public Health Professionals. 

This web-only course contains information on mold prevention and remediation.


Impacts of Building Dampness on Indoor Air Quality.
(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA , 2009)


Discusses the effect of indoor humidity on mold, bacteria, and house dust mites. Thirteen recent studies are summarized. 8p. 

School Advanced Ventilation Engineering Software. (SAVES)
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. , 2006)


SAVES is a free software package that architects, engineers, school officials, and others can use to determine what type of ventilation equipment provides the best advantages for their unique applications.

 Humidity Control in Minnesota Schools.
(Minnesota Dept. of Commerce, St. Paul , Oct 2005)


Offers guidance to help school building managers and operators understand the process of moisture management. It explains why controlling humidity is important and what settings to choose. It also advises on how to operate and maintain various types of humidity control systems, minimize both occupant complaints and energy bills, improve operations and maintenance of existing equipment, and make selections for equipment replacement. 30p. 

 Water in Buildings: An Architect's Guide to Moisture and Mold 
Rose, William B. 
(John Wiley & Sons , 2005)


Water and moisture can greatly impact the integrity of a building's structure and ambience. This book provides valuable information on how water behaves and how its performance can be anticipated and managed in building design. It covers rainwater management, below-grade water management, foundations, wall and roof construction, mechanical systems, leak paths, and more. 256p.

ISBN: 0471468509 

 Guidance for Clinicians on the Recognition and Management of Health Effects Related to Mold Exposure and Moisture Indoors.
Storey, Eileen; Dangman, Kenneth; Schenck, Paula; DeBernardo, Robert; Yang, Chin; Bracker, Anne; Hodgson, Michael.
(University of Connecticut Health Center, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Center for Indoor Environments and Health, Farmington , Sep 30, 2004)


Explains the current understanding of the relationship between mold exposure and illness, approaches to diagnosis, approaches to environmental assessment, and strategies for clinical management and preventive intervention. Three case studies of teachers affected by mold in their schools are provided. 120p. 

 Damp Indoor Spaces and Health.
(National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine, Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention., 2004)


In 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention asked the National Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Medicine to review the scientific literature regarding the relationship between moisture and mold in the indoor environment and adverse health effects.

 Fact Sheet: Mold in Schools.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington , Jan 2004)


Describes why and where mold can grow in schools, the health effects of mold, and how to manage it. Includes photographs and a list of additional resources. 2p. 


 Are You Building a School or a Liability? A Guide to Using Total Masonry Construction in Public Schools. 
Huckabee, Christopher
(National Concrete Masonry Association, Herndon, VA , 2004)


Explains the value of total masonry construction in K-12 schools for the purpose of reduced life-cycle costs, safety, and mold resistance. A discussion of the importance of the building envelope, testimonials, a comparison of total masonry and tilt-up construction, and an explanation of the systems, costs, and properties of total masonry construction are provided. 58p. 

TO ORDER: Mason Contractors Association of America, 33 S. Roselle Rd., Schaumburg, IL 60193; Tel: 800-536-2225.


 Mold Remediation Legislation and Litigation.
Frisman, Paul
(Connecticut General Assemply, Office of Legislative Research, Hartford , Sep 16, 2003)


Describes recent mold remediation legislation in Connecticut, California, Montana, New Jersey, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Texas, including a discussion of some recent cases of mold litigation, theories of liability, and admissibility of expert testimony. 6p. 

 Recommended Best Practices for Mold Remediation in Minnesota Schools 
(Minnesota Department of Health Environmental Health Division, Jun 2003)


Topics covered include communication strategies, pre-remediation assessment, determining the scope of the remediation project, use of administrative controls, contaminant removal considerations, and post-remediation evaluation. 44p.


 Guide to Molds at School.
(Healthy Schools Network, Inc., Albany, NY , Dec 2002)


Asserting that molds growing in schools can be harmful to children's health and learning, this guide offers information about the issue. It provides an overview of the basics, then addresses testing, types of molds, molds and health, monitoring schools for mold, mold prevention and clean-up tips for schools, and what parents should do if they suspect mold is making their child sick. [Free registration required.] 6p. 

ERIC NO: ED474736 ; 
TO ORDER: Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 773 Madison Ave., Albany, NY 12208; Tel: 518-462-0632



 Health Effects of Mold Exposure in Public Schools.
Santilli, John 
(Current Science, Inc., Philadelphia, PA , Nov 01, 2002)


This paper profiles the impact of mold exposure on the health of students, teachers, and staff in two public elementary schools in Connecticut, and explains how the air quality in each school was tested, and how the health of teachers and students was assessed. It also proposes standards for testing indoor air quality and evaluating the health impact of indoor mold exposure on students, teachers, and staff members. [Author's abstract] 8p. 

TO ORDER: Current Science, Inc., 400 Market Street Suite 700, Philadelphia, PA 19106; Tel: 1-800-427-1796


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The Facts About Mold: A Glossary.
(American Industrial Hygiene Association, Fairfax, VA , Jun 2002)


This succinctly defines such terms as allergen, "black mold," fungi, microbial volatile organic compounds, mycotoxin, stachybotrys, and toxigenic fungi. Other fungal terms include conidium, hypha, and mycelium. Common indoor fungi are described. 3p.


 Mold in My School: What Do I Do?
(National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, Washington, DC , Mar 2002)


This monograph provides a succinct look at the most important indoor mold-related health concerns, and it discusses how school districts can keep school facilities mold free. The mold issues examined include those described under the following headings: when to be concerned; how molds cause health problems; what are the symptoms; molds that form toxins; and who is most at risk. Under a separate section called "basic voluntary guidelines for cleanup and prevention of all molds," the authors lists the things that a school district should and should not do in response to various situations related to mold. These headings are: When school buildings get wet because of rain or a clean water spill; If buildings are flooded by dirty water or sewage; getting rid of mold growth inside a school building; preventing mold growth in schools; and communicating with parents and staff. Includes a list of resources, tools, and related websites that school administrators and school board members can use to quickly address and eliminate real or potential indoor mold problems in schools. 4p. 

TO ORDER: National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 1090 Vermont Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC; Tel: 202-289-7800



 Mold: Cause, Effect and Response. 
(Foundation of the Wall and Ceiling Industry, Falls Church, VA, Mar 2002)


This paper offers a review of a variety of scientific, technical and medical resources to answer questions and to educate readers about the complex and often controversial issues surrounding mold growth in buildings. This discusses the who, what, why, when, and why of mold. Sections include: 1) how to tell if a mold problem exists; 2) how to get rid of mold once it's found; 3) how to keep mold from growing; and 4) risk management and insurance. Registration required for online access to document. 46p.

TO ORDER: Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industry, 803 West Broad Street, Suite 600, Falls Church, VA 22046; Tel: 703-534-8300;43;


 Guidelines on Assessment and Remediation of Fungi in Indoor Environments.
(New York City Dept. of Health, Bureau of Environmental and Occupational Disease Epidemiology, NY, Jan 2002)


This guidance document addresses mold contamination of building components (walls, ventilation systems, support beams, etc.) that are chronically moist or water damaged.

 Interim Report of the 2002 Fall Term Grand Jury on School Board Construction.
(Office of the State Attorney, Broward County, Fort Lauderdale, FL , 2002)


Reports on attempts to fix certain Broward County schools built from 1987-1996. Several school were built in rapid succession during this period, using four faulty prototype designs that were not amended before the next school was built. 


 Evaluating Effects of Moisture Damage Repairs in the Students' Health Using Questionnaires.
Haverinen, U.; Pekkanen, J.; Nevalainen, A.; Husman, T.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)


Reports on a Finnish questionnaire study conducted among upper secondary and high school students before comprehensive repairs of moisture damage in their school, then repeated one year and three years after the repairs. 


 Respiratory Infections among Children in Moisture Damaged Schools.
Husman, T.; Meklin, T.; Veps,l inin, A.; Vahteristo, M.; Koivisto, J.; Halla-aho, J.; Hyvrinen, A.; Koponen, V.; Nevalainen, A.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)


Reports on a study of the association between respiratory infections and moisture damage in different types of school buildings. 

 Occurrence and Characteristics of Moisture Damage in School Buildings.
Kovisto, J.; Haverinen, U.; Meklin, T.; Nevalainen, A.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)


Reports on the investigation of moisture damage in 41 Finnish school buildings. 31 buildings had notable moisture damage observations and 10 buildings did not.

 Indoor Air Pollutants, Limited Resource Households and Childcare Facilities.
Laquatra, J.; Maxwell, L.E.; Pierce, M.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)


Presents findings from an indoor air quality study of homes and childcare facilities in nonmetropolitan counties of New York State. Specific pollutants examined were lead, radon, carbon monoxide, asbestos, and mold. High levels of pollutants were observed homes and childcare facilities, raising questions about constant pollutant exposure to children. Recommendations are made for lowering exposure levels in low income households and childcare facilities. (Includes eleven references.) 6p. 

 Effects of Moisture Damage Repair on Microbial Exposure and Health Effects in Schools.
Meklin, T.; Husman, T; Pekkanen, J.; Hyvarinen, A.; Hirvonen, M-R; Nevalainen, A.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)


Reports the results of an intervention study designed to show the effects of the remediation of moisture and mold damaged school building on the student health. Microbial sampling from indoor air of the school and a health questionnaire study were performed before and after renovation. The results were compared to those from a non-damaged control school.

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Clearing the Air: a Model for Investigating Indoor Air Quality in Texas Schools.
Petronella, S.A.; Thomas, R.; Stone, J.A.; Goldblum, R.M.; Brooks, E.G.
(Indoor Air 2002, The Ninth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, CA , 2002)


Reviews a pilot project focused on indoor air quality assessment at a local school, utilizing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools program.

 Recommended Best Practices for Mold Investigations in Minnesota Schools.
(Minnesota Department of Health, Environmental Health Division, Indoor Air Unit, St.Paul, MN , Nov 2001)


The goal of this document is to assist school district staff in their initial efforts to investigate the causes and severity of indoor mold problems and to find appropriate, cost-effective solutions. This document details procedures for initial investigation, and it includes background information on mold and health effects, information on personal protection, interpretations of mold testing results, and a complete glossary of terms. 34p. 

 Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers, Appendix C - Moisture, Mold and Mildew.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, Jun 2001)


This appendix from a textbook on indoor air quality in buildings provides background on moisture-related problems deriving from relative humidity, vapor pressure, and condensation. It includes a description of steps to take to reduce moisture, and explains how to identify and correct common problems from mold and mildew. 6p.


 Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Indoor Environments Division, Washington, DC , Mar 2001)


This document describes how to investigate and evaluate moisture and mold problems in educational facilities. Presents key steps for implementing a remediation plan. Provides a checklist for conducting mold remediation efforts along with a resource list of helpful organizations and governmental agencies. Appendices contain a glossary, an educational section on molds, and an explanation of how communication with building occupants aids in mold eradication efforts. 55p. 

 Molds, Toxic Molds, and Indoor Air Quality.
Davis, Pamela J. 
(California Research Bureau, California State Library, Sacramento, Mar 2001)


This paper provides background information on molds, their potential health effects, and how they relate to indoor air quality. This discusses properties of mold that pose a threat to human health. Actions taken by state and federal agencies are described. There is also information on how mold is remediated. 19p.


 Mold and Moisture.
(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, Jan 2001)


This is a chapter from the coordinator's guide that is part of the Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools kit developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 


 Indoor Air Quality. Tools for Schools. [With Videotape].
(Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. , Dec 2000)


This kit contains materials to assist a school indoor air quality (IAQ) coordinator in conducting a school IAQ program. Along with the IAQ coordinator’s guide, the kit contains IAQ coordinator forms; an IAQ backgrounder; and a variety of checklists for administrators, teachers, and school health workers. 

TO ORDER: Indoor Air Quality Information Clearinghouse, P.O. Box 37133, Washington D.C. 20013-7133; Toll free: 800-438-4318.



 IAQ Tools for Schools: Managing Asthma in the School Environment.
(Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC , Apr 2000)


This manual provides tips on improving indoor air quality within the school environment by removing the elements that trigger asthma attacks in children, and presents a list of organizations where asthma resource information can be obtained.


 Schools, Mould, and Health - An Intervention Study.
Nevalainen, Aino et al 
(Finnish Research Programme on Environmental Health, 2000)


The aim of the intervention study was to find out whether the moisture and mould repairs of the school buildings have an effect on the exposure to indoor air pollutants, on the respiratory health of the school children, studied with both questionnaire and clinical methods. 


 An Approach to Management of Critical Indoor Air Problems in School Buildings [Finland]
Haverinen, Ulla; Husman, Tuula; Toivola, Mika; Suonketo, Jommi; Pentii, Matti; Lindberg, Ralf; Leinonen, Jouni; Hyvarinen, Anne; Meklin, Teija
(Environmental Health Perspectives, v107, n3. Based on a presentation at the International Conference on Indoor Mold and Children. , Jun 1999)


This study was conducted in a school center that had been the focus of intense public concern over 2 years because of suspected mold and health problems.

This reference guide discusses design principles and methods for producing buildings that effectively deal with moisture. Discusses the physical nature of rain, snow, and ice; vapor behavior; variations in climate and their effects on the durability of building materials. Includes sections on specification, construction, and testing methods. Explains heat flow and insulation, water penetration and vapor condensation. Also discusses roofing, waterproofing, and cladding systems; joint sealants and coatings. 380p.



 Mold Menace Forces School Evacuation. 
Pinto, Michael A. 
(Paper presented at IAQ and Energy 98 Using ASHRAE Standards 62 and 90.1 , 1998)


This paper describes IAQ investigations in a midwestern elementary school, which was closed for almost five months while remedial actions were taken.After a malfunction of the boiler system in conjunction with a steam leak, an initial IAQ investigation revealed that eye and respiratory irritation experienced by individuals exposed to the leaking steam were primarily the result of an overabundance of boiler treatment chemicals in the system.


 Moisture Control Handbook: Principles and Practices for Residential and Small Commercial Buildings. 
Lstiburek, Joseph; Carmody, John
(John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1996)


This reference applies moisture control and treatment techniques in a problem/solution format.


 Bugs, Mold & Rot II 
(National Institute of Building Sciences, Building Environment and Thermal Envelope Council, Washington, DC, 1994)


Proceedings from a November 1993 workshop on control of humidity for health, artifacts, and buildings. Document includes schematics, charts, and other illustrations. Topics covered include: humidity and building materials; humidity and fungal contaminants; relative humidity in museums, galleries, and archives; a search for moisture sources; crawl spaces; regulations; research and results; humidity control in the humid south; humidity control in northern climates; and energy efficient dehumidification technology. 151p.

TO ORDER: National Institute of Building Sciences, 1090 Vermont Ave., NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC; Tel:202-289-7800






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Show/Hide Abstracts


Keep Moisture out of Your Builidngs.
Pinckney, Christopher
Buildings; v103 n3 , p42-45 ; Mar 2009 


Discusses nineteen steps during building construction that should be taken to prevent moisture from entering a building.


 Prescription for Mold Prevention.
Sierck, Peter
American School and Hospital Facility; v32 n2 , p14,16,17 ; Mar-Apr 2009 


Advises on response to water damage in buildings, emphasizing immediate action to remove water, assess moisture damage, dry or remove materials, isolate the affected area, and document all findings. Also included is advice on safe demolition and removal of contaminated materials and selection of a certified contractor.


 Breathing In.
Mahoney, Daniel
American School and University; v80 n12 , p34-36 ; Jul 2008 


Advises on how to keep excess moisture out of a school building, how to remediate mold if it does occur, and how to evaluate risk in cases of indoor air quality complaints.


 Reducing Health Risks on Campus.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v11 n6 , p24,26-28 ; Jun 2008 


Advises on handling asbestos, lead, mold, and radon risks in new and existing schools, as well as during renovations.


 Identifying and Treating Environmental Hazards.
Silicato, Steve
Buildings; v102 n2 , p72,74,76 ; Feb 2008 


Advises on identification, analysis, abatement, and remediation of asbestos, lead-based paint, and mold.


 Water, Water Everywhere.
Milshtein, Amy
School Planning and Management; v46 n7 , p34,36,37 ; Jul 2007 


Discusses techniques for keeping water out of school buildings. Air spaces between exterior and interior walls, weep holes in the masonry, and waterproofing applications are described, as are new roof bonding agents and green roofs. New lining products and techniques for ductwork and plumbing are also described.


 Mold Clean-Up and Prevention.
Shoemaker, Dawn
American School and Hospital Facility; v30 n4 , p6,8,9 ; Jul 2007 


Reviews causes of mold in buildings, identification and assessment of mold infestation, correction of the causes, and scrubbing of the air after mold remediation.


 The Mold That Almost Ate the Principal 
Barry, Wayne; Bishop, Chuck; Byars, Jennifer
Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership; v9 n2 , p17-22 ; 2006 


This is the story of the toll new-building mold can take on school systems and their principals, especially as these mold problems might be a smokescreen or lightning rod for other things that go on in the daily life of a learning community.


 Mold: What Science Says Now
Horner, W. Elliott; Spanos, B.J. 
Building Operating Management; Dec 2005 


Recent studies can help facility managers cut through the hype and understand the real risks of mold in buildings. This article discusses the findings of six scientific studies. It also recommends that facility managers not ignore mold problems or moisture and water damage, which are strong indicators that a building is prime for indoor mold growth. These problems will not go away by themselves.


 Detecting Mold in School Buildings: An Exercise in Biodiversity.
Farone, Anthony L.
American Biology Teacher; v67 n7 , p401-410 ; Sep 2005 


A project was designed to introduce students to fungi in which students surveyed their school buildings for different types of mold. The students were able to make connections between structure and function of the fungal components and learn how these different components enhance survival in the environment.


 Mold Really Is Manageable.
Kollie, Ellen
College Planning and Management; v8 n7 , p16,18,20 ; Jul 2005 


Describes a complicated mold remediation project in two new residence halls at a North Carolina University. The breakout was attributed to leakage from steam lines that the buildings were connected to, plumbing leaks, and improperly installed air conditioning units.


 HVAC Systems and Mold
Camplin, Jeffrey
Maintenance Solutions; Jun 2005 


A variety of factors can contribute to the growth of mold in facilities, but one all-too-common culprit is HVAC equipment. The HVAC system, including piping and drain pans, can be sources of mold growth and a transportation mode for dispersing mold spores throughout a building. Preventing mold, as well as detecting and removing it, requires an understanding of conditions that allow it to form and spread in facilities.



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Protecting Against ... A Rise in Toxic Mold Litigation
Morgan, Richard; Schoenwetter, Charles
Buildings; Jun 2005 


Toxic mold lawsuits are profliferating across the country. This discusses defending against these claims. The authors contend that scientific research does not yet support any causal relationship between mold and ill health.


 Lessons in Curing Mold Problems.
McMillan, Hugh
ASHRAE Journal; v47 n5 , p32-34,36,37 ; May 2005 


Describes the remediaton of significant recurring Summer mold outbreaks in a coastal Texas school system. Repairs and upgrades to the HVAC systems are detailed, but these were rendered less effective because year-end cleaning programs in the schools were introducing large quantities of water. Improved cleaning procedures and better training of staff were then undertaken.


 Mold & the Coatings Connection
Maintenance Solutions; Nov 2004 


A closer look at the role of paints in mold prevention reveals challenges and opportunities for managers. This discusses setting a mold-remediation strategy, protecting surfaces with paints and coatings, and clean up considerations.


 Moisture, Mold, and HVAC.
Burroughs, H.E. Barney; Thomann, Wayne R.
The Construction Specifier; v57 n10 , p56-58,60,62,64,65 ; Oct 2004 


Discusses condensation control methods and resources to prevent mold growth within HVAC systems.


 Mold May Not Be a Severe Health Menace, but It Is Still a Complex Problem.
Solomon, Nancy
Architectural Record; v192 n9 , p171-174,176,178 ; Sep 2004 


Cites medical and legal information on mold in the built environment, explaining its biological functions, how it grows more easily in modern building conditions and materials, how it can be prevented, and preventative steps being taken by clients who build regularly.


 Evaluation and a Predictive Model of Airborne Fungal Concentrations in School Classrooms
Bartlett, Karen; Kennedy, Susan; Brauer, Michael; Van Netten, Chris; Dill, Barbara
Annals of Occupational Hygiene; v48 n6 , p547-554 ; Aug 09, 2004 


This study was undertaken to evaluate concentrations of airborne fungal concentrations in school classrooms within a defined geographic location in British Columbia, Canada, and to build a model to clarify determinants of airborne fungal concentration. All elementary schools within one school district participated in the study.

 Five Ways to Prevent Mold in Flooring and Carpets.
Harriman, Lew
College Planning and Management; v7 n8 , p26-28 ; Aug 2004 


Describes these five simple ways to prevent mold: 1) Design buildings with roof overhangs. 2) Install wall board 1/4 inch off of the floor. 3) Make sure concrete is thoroughly dry before installing flooring. 4) Keep the indoor air dew point low. 5) Locate and fix water leaks quickly.


 Five Ways to Prevent Mold in Flooring and Carpets.
Harriman, Lew
School Planning and Management; v43 n7 , pF3,F5 ; Jul 2004 


Discusses five simple ways to prevent mold: 1) Design roofs with overhangs. 2)Install wall board 1/4 inch above the floor. 3)Make sure all concrete is dry before installing flooring. 4) Keep indoor air dew point low. 5)Locate and fix water leaks quickly.



 Preventing Water Woes
Deress, David 
Maintenance Solutions; Jun 2004 


A building’s exterior should look good, and it should keep the exterior environment out while providing a healthy, comfortable interior environment for occupants. This article takes a closer look at the roles of exterior coatings, maintenance, and wall-system design in developing a comprehensive waterproofing strategy.


 Proper Masonry Details Can Beat the Mold Menace 
Beall, Christine
The Construction Specifier; v57 n4 , p94-103 ; Apr 2004 


This discusses the primary means of limiting water penetration through masonry, including a good bond between units and mortar, full head and bed joints, adequate allowance for expansion and contraction, and good details and workmanship. The primary means of removing moisture from masonry walls are continuous flashing and unobstructed weep holes.



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Children Symptoms Before and After Knowing About an Indoor Fungal Contamination 
Handal, G.; Leiner, M.A.; Cabrera, M.; Straus, D. C.
Indoor Air; v14 n2 , p87 ; Apr 2004 


To describe children symptoms before and after an indoor fungal problem was publicized. Children attending one of two elementary schools (one with indoor fungal problems and one without) were included in this study. The study included an analysis of symptoms reported by the nurses before and after the indoor fungal problem was publicized and a questionnaire responded to by the parents. Several symptoms related to exposure to mold were found to be statistically significant in the school with an indoor fungal problem before the problem was detected: the symptoms included coughing/wheezing, headaches and joint pains. After the problem was publicized the perception of symptoms increased. [Authors' abstract]



 Fungi Aren't Fun: Mold Growth Needs to Be Limited in Roof Systems
Schneider, Reinhard
Professional Roofing; v34 n3 , p54-59 ; Mar 2004 


Occupied buildings with interior moisture sources, such as schools, can generate water vapor, which must dissipate or be ventilated so that it does not accumulate and become a mold source. This article considers roof assembly designs and other design considerations, means, and methods, such as water vapor management and the use of inorganic material, that help restrict the growth of harmful mold and mildew.


 School Mold Problems Spur Growth Of Cleanup Industry.
Sack, Joetta
Education Week ; v23 n21 , p8 ; Feb 04, 2004 


As more and more schools confront the problem of mold, plenty of individuals and companies, some reputable and some not, are seeking to profit from the situation. [Free subscriber registration is required.]


 Your Best Resource.
Pratt, Adam J.
American School and University; v76 n6 , p38,40,41 ; Feb 2004 


Advises on selection of a contractor for mold remediation and what may or may not be covered by insurance.


 Avoiding Mold Growth in Schools During Humidity.
Turner, William; Caulfield, Steve M.; McKnight, Frederick
Indoor Environment Connections Online; Feb 2004 


The focus of this article is on avoiding mold growth in schools during highdewpoint weather. In an unoccupied facility, the easiest means of doing this include closing the windows, heating the space above dewpoint, and monitoring indoor conditions. In an occupied or partially occupied facility that needs to be ventilated and comfortable, choices include restricting cooling set point temperatures and avoiding over-ventilation.


 The Roofing-Mold Connection
Liscum, Curtis
Maintenance Solutions; Jan 2004 


Proper installation of roofs, thorough inspection, and prompt repairs can combine to help protect facilities operations and occupants from the ramifications of mold. This discusses identifying the culprit, leak response, proactive steps, clean-up considerations, and cold-weather roofing considerations.


 Mold Fears.
Sack, Joetta
Education Week; v23 n12 , p27-30 ; Nov 19, 2003 


A case study of Lower Pottsgrove Elementary School in Pennsylvania illustrates a national debate about how to confront the perceived health hazards of mold in schools. An accompanying story, "Increasing Numbers of Schools Are Grappling With Mold Problems," discusses the rising number of school closures and cleanups. [Free subscriber registration is required.]


 Molds in School
Sword, Elizabeth Hauge 

The CHEC Report [Newsletter of the Children's Health Environmental Coalition]; Oct 07, 2003 

This article provides an excellent introduction to the issue of mold in schools, linking to definitions and further resources on the subject.


 Is Mold the New Asbestos?
Colgan, Craig
American School Board Journal; v190 n10 , p14-18 ; Oct 2003 


Mold and indoor air quality (IAQ) are matters of major concern to school leaders and architects. Schools that evaluate their facilities systems after finding serious mold infestations usually discover that the mold problems are connected to other facilities management shortcomings. This article discusses the high-dollar risk of poor indoor air quality; claims, counterclaims, and charges; confronting the community fallout; and how districts are dealing with mold. Strengthening community relations is one way to be ready in case of a bad environmental or IAQ report. 


 Mold-Resistant Construction.
Huckabee, Christopher
School Planning and Management; v42 n8 , p29-32 ; Aug 2003 


Asserts that one of the surest ways to prevent indoor air quality and mold issues is to use preventive construction materials, discussing typical resistance to dealing with mold problems (usually budget-related) and describing mold-resistant construction, which uses concrete masonry, brick, and stone and is intended to withstand inevitable moisture events that destroy many modern building materials. A sidebar offers tips for preventing moisture penetration.



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Mold Fix Puts Expensive End To School District Legal Battle.
Korman, Richard
ENR: Engineering News-Record; Jul 07, 2003 


A long legal struggle between contractors and a school district near Fresno, Calif., has come to a costly end as an extensive mold abatement project begins at a 10-year-old high school complex. The work follows discovery of the mold in 2000 and an $8.2-million settlement last fall that roughly doubled the value of a defects claim against the contractors. The insurers for 13 contractors and suppliers subsequently decided to settle.


 Solving the O&M Equation.
Flach, Robert: Dorgan, Chad B.
ASHRAE Journal; v45 n5 , p40-45 ; May 2003 


Concerning the issue of molds and indoor air quality in school buildings, addresses the importance of planning and design for building operations and maintenance, the effects of indoor air quality, and ongoing documentation and training.


 Mold and Environmental Issues.
Bovard, Tim
School Planning and Management; v42 n3 , p16-22 ; Mar 2003 


Describes the effects of improperly insulated chilled water distribution systems on mold and mildew in occupied buildings, its health risks, prevention, economic impact, and solution.


 Breaking the Mold.
Huckabee, Christopher
School Construction News; v6 n3 , p18-19 ; Mar-Apr 2003 


Using the example of a Texas elementary school, describes how to eliminate mold and mildew from school facilities, including discovering the problem, responding quickly, reconstructing the area, and crisis planning and prevention.


 Toxic Mold. Real Risk or Legal Cash Cow. 
Knowles, Mason
The Construction Specifier; v56 n3 , p58-66 ; Mar 2003 


With the rise in complaints and lawsuits over mold, mold control and mitigation have become a priority in the building industry. Unfortunately, efforts at tackling the mold problem usually result in Band-Aid solution. This discusses building systems, factors affecting indoor environments, moisture, and maintenance recommendations.


 The Mold Insurance Crisis: Less than It Appears.
Mangan, Joseph F.
College Planning and Management; v6 n3 , p36-37 ; Mar 2003 


Discusses two different but closely related problems that must be solved when determining what insurance coverage a campus needs for mold losses: issues of property insurance and of liability insurance.


 Getting Rid of Mold.
Rizzo, Dave
College Planning and Management; v6 n3 , p26-28 ; Mar 2003 


Describes the professional mold remediation process that was performed at Lane Community College in Oregon.


 Fungal Contamination of Elementary Schools: A New Environmental Hazard.
Santilli, John; Rockwell, William
Annals of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology; v90 , p203-208 ; Feb 2003 


Reports on a study testing two Connecticut public school for mold, with the standard for a healthy indoor environment being total mold spore counts lower than 1,000 spores/m3. 


 Desiccant Dehumidification Ensures Against Mold During Construction of Schools. 
Schnell, Donald; Young, Tim
HVACR News; v23 n2 , p8-10 ; Feb 2003 


This article focuses on methods of mold prevention during the school construction process. Keeping materials dry, and drying those that become moist, by contolling humidity levels in the structure are critical to success. This discusses how a desiccant dehumidification system is the most efficient, productive, reliable, and faster method of moisture abatement.


 The Fungus among Us.
Weidner, Robert H.
American School and University; v75 n6 , p30-35 ; Feb 2003 


Offers tips for fighting mold in schools, asserting that it can contribute significantly to poor indoor air quality and sick building syndrome. Offers an overview on mold and discusses the steps of: humidity control, building inspections, condensation control or removal, and floor and carpet cleaning.


 Healthy Learning.
Kennedy, Mike
American School and University; v75 n5 , p26-29 ; Jan 2003 


Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs.


 Effect of Building Frame and Moisture Damage on Microbiological Indoor Air Quality in School Buildings 
Meklin T, Hyvarinen A, Toivola M, Reponen T, Koponen V, Husman T, Taskinen T, Korppi M, Nevalainen A.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal; v64 n1 , p108-16 ; Jan-Feb 2003 


The effect of building frame and moisture damage on microbial indoor air quality was characterized in 17 wooden and 15 concrete or brick school buildings. Technical investigations to detect visible moisture and mold damage were performed according to a standardized protocol.


 Mold and Schools.
Weidner, Robert H.
Facilities Manager; v19 n1 , p44-45 ; Jan-Feb 2003 


Provides information on molds and their relation to indoor air quality and health, then offers tips on controlling moisture in school buildings, and therefore mold growth.


 Investigating and Diagnosing Moisture Problems. 
Lstiburek, Joseph
ASHRAE Journal; , p36-41 ; Dec 2002 


Water comes in four forms: solid, liquid, vapor and adsorbed. All four forms can cause grief to building owners, designers, and contractors. When water causes building problems, investigating and diagnosing the problem can be challenging because water constantly changes it form inside a building and within its materials. The investigator must hunt down the water by thinking like water.


 Commercial and Residential Water Damage: The Mold Connection.
Williams, Del
School Business Affairs; v68 n11 , p38-40 ; Dec 2002 


Describes the problem of toxic mold in residential and commercial property resulting from excess moisture. Includes common sources of unwanted moisture, design and construction flaws, determining the presence of mold, and advice for identifying and hiring reputable mold remediators.


 Solid as a Rock.
Huckabee, Christopher
American School and University; v75 n3 , p349-51 ; Nov 2002 


Discusses the benefits in terms of moisture and therefore mold resistance of using masonry products for a building's envelope. Also describes maintenance steps to help combat moisture problems.


 Indoor Air Microbes and Respiratory Symptoms of Children in Moisture Damaged and Reference Schools. 
Meklin,T. et al
Indoor Air; v12 n3 , p175 ; Sep 2002 


Microbial indoor air quality and respiratory symptoms of children were studied in 24 schools with visible moisture and mold problems, and in eight non-damaged schools. School buildings of concrete/brick and wooden construction were included.


 Uncovering Mold.
Phillips, Stephen M. 
Professional Roofing; v32 n9 , p16-22 ; Sep 2002 


Liability for mold growth in buildings currently is the most serious environnmental concern facing the construction industry, property managers and insurers. This article provides background on the mold issue, describes some current lawsuits, and discusses insurance coverage.


 UVC Sheds New Light on School Mold Problems.
Freeman, James
School Planning and Management; v41 n6 , p53-55 ; Jun 2002 


Describes how the LaPorte Independent School District in Texas turned to ultraviolent light devices installed within the HVAC system to combat mold and fungus after conventional approaches failed. Describes the additional benefits of energy savings from the system.


 The Risks of Unwanted Exposure. Protect Buildings from Mold During Construction.
Olson, Eric; Gumpertz, Werner
The Construction Specifier; v55 n6 , p32-39 ; Jun 2002 


Unwanted exposure of a building during construction constitutes a significant risk of collateral damage if the contractor's work is unexpectedly interrupted. Among the risks are those involving molds nesting on organic surfaces. Quality and properly sequenced construction, along with vigorous inspection, are proven measures for limiting damages.


 Mold Charlatans.
Woody, Daniel
School Planning and Management; v41 n6 , p72-73 ; Jun 2002 


Offers a primer on toxic mold and its removal, warning against ignorant or unethical mold remediation companies and offering five considerations (checking references, considering the big picture, sampling more than the air, considering release, and considering the source) when hiring such services.


 An Unwelcome Surprise.
Williams, Del
American School and University; v75 n6 , p28-31 ; Feb 2002 


Advises schools on how to identify and handle toxic mold in their buildings. Addresses the extent of the problem, offers a four-step approach toward remediation, and suggests questions to ask when mold has been identified.


 The Challenges of Mold. 
Commercial Modular Construction; , p22-23 ; Jan-Feb 2002 


One modular building manufacturer discusses its efforts to learn about and prevent mold in portable classrooms. Understanding the ecology of mold and the life cycle or use of a portable classroom can help in developing design features.


 Preventing Mold Growth in Temporary School Structures.
Stewart, Bruce
Commercial Modular Construction; , p24-25 ; Jan-Feb 2002 


Any school building, permanent or temporary, can support mold growth, given the right materials being wetted for long enough. However, for a number of reasons, temporary buildings, including portable classrooms, seem to have a higher experience of mold growth. This article describes what a school board official can do to prevent mold growth in buildings.


 Preventing Mold and Mildew. 
Bovard, Tim
The Construction Specifier; v54 n12 , p48-49 ; Dec 2001 


Improperly installed chilled water distribution systems promote the growth of mold and mildew. This article presents several examples of schools in Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Michigan where mold has caused damage and economic loss, suggesting that when it comes to preventing mold and mildew on chilled water lines, cellular glass insulation is the best option.


 Dry and Safe.
Weise, George
American School and University; v74 n3 , p349-50 ; Nov 2001 


Explores ideas for controlling mold buildup in educational facilities. Topics addressed include source identification, prevention of standing water, carpet cleaning, and odor removal tips following water damage.


 Moldy Buildings: Troubling Trend for Many Districts.
Stricherz, Mark
Education Week; v21 n4 , p1, 18 ; Sep 26, 2001 


According to experts, mold in schools is no accident, but rather the legacy of cheap construction materials, poor ventilation, and sloppy maintenance, which allows leaks to go unchecked or be improperly repaired. This article discusses how school districts are grappling with the detection and removal of mold as well as growing concern over mold's health effects. [Free subscriber registration is required.]


 Mold and Fear Seep into a Department. 
Chronicle of Higher Education; v47 n2 , pA10-A12 ; Jun 2001 


Describes how professors at the University of Maryland at College Park, Maryland, say that mold growing in their offices is not only destructive to morale but detrimental to their health.


 Getting the Mold Out.
Odle, R. Duane; Bieghler, Kelley
American School and University; v73 n8 , p42,44-46 ; Apr 2001 


Discusses how primary air systems for school climate control can help reduce maintenance costs, offer lower initial cost, provide good indoor air quality, and work for all schools undergoing renovation. Highlights details of one community school's climate control renovation.


 Mold in Schools: a Health Alert.
Mann, Arnold
USA Weekend Special Reports; Aug 2000 


This article details several case studies of schools with mold problems in South Carolina, Texas, and California. A sidebar summarizes the telltale signs of mold in school buildigs. Included is a list of ten things that one needs to know about mold.


 Breathe Deeply.
Milshtein, Amy
School Planning and Management; v39 n5 , p31,33-34 ; May-Jun 2000 


Discusses indoor air quality issues related to school gyms, locker rooms, and pools; explores ways to keep the indoor environment healthy. Includes discussions of mold and fungus control as well as air issues stemming from indoor pools.


 Defeating the Drips.
Moss, Lincoln
School Planning and Management; v39 n3 , p34-36 ; Mar 2000 


Discusses a holistic approach to preventing moisture penetration of exterior walls in modular school buildings, emphasizing the related topics of roof leaks and roof waterproofing, condensation, and HVAC design. 


 Breathe Easy.
Epstein, Barb
School Planning and Management; v38 n7 ; Jul 1999 


Examines indoor air pollutants typically found in schools and presents tips for controlling them.


 Toxic Mold Closes Schools. 
ENR: Engineering News-Record; v242 n24 , p12 ; Jun 21, 1999 


A toxic mold called stachybotrysatra has compromised health and caused two Toronto Catholic primary schools to shut down. Over $700,000 has been spent in twelve years to upgrade ventilation systems and correct roof deficiencies, to no avail. A decision is pending to fix or demolish the structures.


 Microfungal Contamination of Damp Buildings--Examples of Risk Constructions and Risk Materials. 
Gravesen, Suzanne; et al
Environmental Health Perspectives; v107 suppl. 3 ; Jun 1999 


To elucidate problems with microfungal infestation in indoor environments, a multidisciplinary collaborative pilot study was performed on 72 mold-infected building materials from 23 buildings.

 Poor Design, Construction and Maintenance Contribute to Mould in School Portables 
Fishburn, Douglas C.; Caruso, Frank
Construction Canada; , p10-13 ; Mar 1999 


Due to inhernt faults in the design, construction and poor maintenance practices, portable classroom buildings are a breeding ground for mould. Portables are prone to roof, wall and window leaks, and are often subject to high humidity levels due to improper ventilation, moisture evaporation from wet shoes and clothing, and wet washing of floors. Poor management of water run-off from roofs and the site is also a contributing factor. This article provides an overview of the health concerns to building occupants and how the design, construction and maintenance of portable classroom buildings has contributed to the development of this problem.


 Mold: The Whole Picture. Pt. 2, Assessment of Mold Problems.
McGrady, Ellen
Abbey Newsletter; v23 n5 ; 1999 


It takes a number of specialists from different fields to do an adequate assessment of a mold problem in a building. This article defines the problem, describes the detective work that must be done, explains a sampling process, and provides sources of information. 

 Mold and Children's Health. 
Tuscano, Antoinette 
Our Children; v23 n6 , p32-33 ; Mar 1998 


Mold can seriously affect the health of children with asthma or allergies. Indoor air problems related to mold can be difficult to identify, but when several students who spend time in the same classroom area show allergic symptoms, it is important to consider mold and air quality. Failure to respond promptly can have serious consequences.


 Respiratory Symptoms and Infections among Children in a Day-Care Center with Mold Problems. 
Koskinen, Outi; Husman, Tuula; Hyvärinen, Anne; Reponen, Tiina; Nevalainen, Aino
Indoor Air; v5 n1 , p3 ; Mar 1995 


The prevalence of irritative symptoms and the incidence of respiratory infections among children in a day-care center affected by mold were compared with those in a reference day-care center. A retrospective pilot study was made in the mold-problem day-care center. Analysis of absenteeism records and a one-year follow-up study were made in both day-care centers. In the pilot study, half of the exposed 41 children had prolonged or frequent symptoms and respiratory infections. In addition, the absenteeism in the mold-problem day-care center was nearly twice as high as in the reference day-care center. After cessation of the exposure, the occurrence of respiratory symptoms decreased and no lower respiratory tract infections appeared. [Authors' abstract]




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Center for School Mold Help


The Center for School Mold Help provides educational and scientific information to the public about toxic mold and sick building syndrome related to damp school buildings. The website includes resources, mold test kits, testimonies, research, links, mold survey information, mold law, and more.

ompiled by the National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities.

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